Plants: by Katrina Cavender

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Interior live oak (Quercus wislizeni)
Interior live oak is shade tolerant. It is resistant to fire because of its thick bark and sprouting ability. The species provides important wildlife forage and habitat, and its shade gives welcome summertime relief to livestock. Native Americans used the acorns to make various foods. Interior live oak is cut for firewood. In areas subject to recurring fire, the species forms shrubby thickets. Interior live oak hybridizes with California black oak, huckleberry oak, and coast live oak.(Stuart & Sawyer pg.334)
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Canyon live oak (Quercus chrysolepis)
Canyon live oak is shade and drought tolerant. Young stems are readily killed by fire, and repeated fires will convert canyon live oaks to shrubs. The species is used as firewood and to make furniture, pallets, and paneling. Wildlife species use canyon live oak for roosting, nesting, foraging, and cover. Birds and large and small mammals eat its acorns. Native Americans leached tannins from the acorns, making an edible mush. Canyon live oak hybridizes with Palmer oak, island oak, and huckleberry oak. (Stuart & Sawyer pg319-320)
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Valley oak (Quercus lobata)
Valley oak is intermediate in its shade tolerance. It sprouts following injury from fire or cutting. Valley oak is considered to be an uncommon species, largely because of loss of habitat to agriculture and urbanization. Where it does occur, it provides important habitat for wildlife. Native Americans ground its acorns into meal. Valley oak wood is used mostly as firewood and to make charcoal. the species hybridizes with scrub oak, Muller oak, blue oak, Engelmann oak, Oregon white oak, and Tucker oak. (Stuart & Sawyer 328-329)
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This is an Oak gall, on one of our many Oak trees. Cynipid wasps (gall wasps)shoot hormones (enzymes)into the bark, causing the growth to occur; developing larva are in the gall, feeding off of the sugary material that the Oak makes. When Oak galls are new they are green, they turn dark brown and holes appear when the larva mature and adults are ready to emerge. (Cannon 5)
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Oregon ash (Fraxinus latifolia)
Oregon ash is intermediate in its shade tolerance. It is used as firewood and to make tool handles, furniture, and barrels. In Oregon, Native Americans believed that poisonous snakes avoided Oregon ash stands. F. velutina and F. latifolia have similar characteristics where their ranges overlap south of the Kings River. (Stuart & Sawyer pg240)
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California barberry (Berberis pinnata)
California barberry takes 2 forms: the mainland subspecies, B.p.ssp. pinnata, is an erect shrub, whereas the Channel Islands' endangered B.p.ssp.insularis is a vine. Many mainland populations share characteristics with Oregon-grape and are intermediate in appearance. California barberry is resistant to rust infection. (Stuart & Sawyer pg177-178)
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Freemont Cottonwood
Freemont cottonwood is shade intolerant. It becomes established on distributed sited near streams that have bare moist soil. The species is used as firewood and to make fence posts and pallets. It provides critical habitat for wildlife throughout the southwest in "gallery" forests along streams. Cottonwoods in general, and especially Fremont cottonwood, have served as indicators of surface water. Widespread planting of Freemont cottonwood has provided needed habitat and shade in the Southwest. Two subspecies are recognized: P.f.ssp. fremontii and the Arizona cottonwood (P.f.ssp. mesetae). Freemont cottonwood hybridizes with narrowleaf cottonwood and black cottonwood, but apparently not in California. (Stuart & Sawyer pg296-297)
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California buckeye (Aesculus californica)
California buckeye is summer-deciduous, losing its leaves in mid- to late summer. In September, California buckeyes can have myriad large, dangling, pear-shaped fruits. All parts of this tree are toxic to humans, wildlife, and livestock. They contain glycosidal compounds that affect red blood cells and the central nervous system. Native Americans used the ground seed to stun fish so that they would float to the surface, where they could be harvested. They also ate the mashed, roasted seeds after leaching away their toxins. California buckeye is planted as an ornamental because of its showy flowers and picturesque growth form. It sprouts from its base following injury. (Stuart & Sawyer pg140-141)
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California coffee berry (Ramnus californica)
The leaf color, shape, and size of California coffeeberry's 2 subspecies vary, but the shrubs are differentiated according to habitat. R.c.ssp. californica has dark green upper blade surfaces and green or yellow lower surfaces; it grows on nonserpentine soils. In R.c.ssp. occidentalis, both blade surfaces are similarly green; it grows on serpentine soils. (Stuart & Sawyer pg335)
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Christmasberry toyon (Heteromeles arbutifolia)
If the leaf is widest in the middle, it is Christmasberry toyon. (Watts pg55)
Toyon is one of California's exceptionally attractive shrubs. The dark green foliage and red fruits are resplendent in the winter. (Stuart & Sawyer pg249)
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This tree I have not been able to identify, there are some on the side of Hensley Creek Rd. on the way to the college.
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This tree has fallen down and is providing a whole new ecosystem within mine. There is not much left to the tree so I was unable to identify it.
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Giant Vetch (Vicia gigantea)
Pea family (Fabaceae)
Note the long pyramid-shaped (in outline) leaf with 8-12 pairs of linear leaflets. Numerous red-purple flowers per raceme (or pale yellow in some areas). Stems smooth. Vines 2-6ft. Shady woods. Along Pacific Coast. March-July (Niehaus & Ripper pg326)
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California blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium bellum)
Iris family (Iridaceae)
Dark purple 6-petaled stars with a darker center. Stem has 2 or more branches and flowers. 4-16in. Open grassy places. Pacific states. February-July (Niehaus & Ripper pg350)
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California wild rose
Wild rose Rose family (Rosaceae)
California wild rose forms thickets that increase in size with age, to the point where it may require a root barrier. Stems range from very thorny to nearly smooth, and weeding among jumble of spiny stems is quite difficult. fragrant pink blossoms with five petals appear from spring to early summer. By fall, the flowers develop into small, decorative, 1/4- to 1/2-inch-wide orange-red fruits known as rose hips. (Stuart & Sawyer pg172-173)
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Tower mustard (Arabis glabra)
Mustard family (Cruciferae)
Basal leaves are hariy and linear with a reverse-toothed margin. Smooth, slim arrowlike leaves clasp the slender towerlike stem. Small, pale yellow flowers. slender upright seedpods. 2-6ft. Openings below 7000ft. Pacific States. March-July (Niehaus & Ripper pg140)
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Silver bush lupine (Lupinus albifrons)
Pea family (Fabaceae)
Lupines are among the most ubiquitous and well loved California wildflowers. There are literally dozens of species ranging from bright annuals to beautiful perrenials and gorgeous shrubs. Silver bush lupine exemplifies the qualities of this genus and has stunning silver gray stems and foliage year round. This shrub usually grows 5 to 6 feet tall and equally wide to somewhat wider. Silver bush lupine is truly spectacular in the spring when it produces numerous erect spires of blue to violet (rarely pink or white) flowers. (Bornstein & Fross & O'Brien pg130)
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Brush pea (Lathyrus pauciflorus)
Pea family (Fabaceae)
Note the starlike stipules at the base of each leaf petiole. The pinnate leaf has 8-10 narrowly linear leaflets and a terminal tendril. Mostly 4-7 pink to red-purple flowers that age a dark blue. Vines 1-3ft. Dry mt. slopes. All central california; Great Basin. April-June (Niehaus & Ripper pg324)
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Crimson clover (trifolium incarnatum)
Note the elongated cylinderlike flower head of bright red flowers without a bract below it. Leaflets wedge-shaped. 1/2-2ft. Frequent, roadsides. North California. April-August (Niehaus & Ripper 320)
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Maiden clover (Trifolium microcephalum)
Pea family (Fabaceae)
Note the tiny pale pink flower heads (1/4in.) surrounded by a shallow bowl-like bract that has broad spine-tipped lobes. Leaflets have bilobed tips and serrated margins. Stipules triangular. 1/2-1 1/2ft. Pacific States. April-August ((Bornstein & Fross & O'Brien pg320)
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German ivy (Senecio mikanioides)
Sunflower family (Asteraceae)
The climbing vines have yellow-green heart-shaped leaves with 5-7 sharp angled points. Pincushion flower heads in clusters. Canyons near coast. Central California. Dec-March (Niehaus & Ripper pg208)
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Coyote brush (Baccharis pilularis)
On windswept headlands along the central coast, coyote brush forms dense mats. Away from the coast, the plants are erect. (pg173)
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Narrow-leaved milkweed (Asclepias fascicularis)
Milkweed family (Asclepiadaceae)
The long linear leaves in whorls of 3-6 are generally hairless and folded upward. Flowers white to greenish- or purple-tinted. 2-4ft. Dry places. Pacific states. June-September (Niehaus & Ripper pg62)
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Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris (LINN.)
N.O. compositae family
Mugwort abounds on hedgebanks and waysides in most parts of England. It is a tall-growing plant, the stems, which are angular and often of a purplish hue, frequently rising 3 feet or more in height. The leaves are smooth and of a dark green tint on the upper surface, but covered with a dense cottony down beneath; they are once or twice pinnately lobed, the segments being lanceshaped and pointed. The flowers are in small oval heads with cottony involucres and are arranged in long, terminal panicles; they are either reddish or pale yellow. (Grieve)
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Himalayan blackberries (Rubus discolor)
Himalayan balckberry is not the only escaped exotic blackberry, just the most pernicious one. Other exotics include R. laciniatus, which has deeply divided leaflets; R. pensilvanicus, which is found extensively on distributed areas; and R. ulmifolius, which is common in southern California. People and animals eat Himalayan blackberry fruits. The brambles provide wildlife habitat, but unfortunately, natural habitats are being lost to these invasive plants. (Stuart & Sawyer pg362-363)
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Cattail (Typha latifolia)
Cattail Typhaceae family
Brown cigar-shaped inflorescence, approximately 1" in diameter. Male and female flowers are found on the same spike-the upper half is the staminate, or male, and is tan in color. Wide leaves. Grows in wet places, up to 9 ft. tall. (Colby-Sawyer College)
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Rattlesnake Grass/Quake Grass (Briza maxima)
Grass family (Poaceae)
Annual grass with 1-4 stems 93-60cm), basal to cauline leaves and flat blades (1-7mm wide). Infloresences are open and paniclelike (2-10cm). The spikes (10-19mm) number between 1-14 per inflorescence and are pendent (hanging). They are compressed, papery, ovois, obtuse at base with rounded tips. (WSP Botanical collection)
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Crested wheatgrass and bluejoint grass mixed with other flowers. Bluejoint grass has delicate small flowers; purple, lead-colored, or green. Branches hug the stem after flowering. (Colby-Sawyer College)
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Invasive weed

Works Cited to come (here are the names of the books for now):
"Trees and Shrubs of California" by John D. Stuart and John O. Sawyer
"Peterson Field Guides:Pacific States Wildflowers" by Theodore F. Niehaus and Charles L. Ripper
"Pacific Coast Tree Finder" by Tom Watts
"California Native Plants for the Garden" by Carol Bornstein, David Fross and Bart O'Brien
Marilyn Cannon's Fifth lecture give on April 28,2007 at The Fairfield Osborn Preserve
"A modern Herbal" by Mrs. M. Grieve
"Cattail Typha latifolia" by Colby-Sawyer College
"Rattlesnake Grass/Quake Grass" by WSP Botanical Collection
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